Cutting, boning and veining of beef, we produce in accordance with: "Technological instructions for boning and meat cutting", "Technological instruction for the universal scheme of cutting, deboning and veining of beef for the production of semi-finished products, smoked products and sausages", as well as other normative documents , approved in accordance with the established procedure.
Cut the meat on the bones in a chilled, defrosted, steamy and cooled state in the form of carcases, carcases and quarters.
Entering the cutting, boning and trimming meat has a temperature in the thickness of the muscles at a depth of at least 6 cm from the surface:
cooled and thawed 1 ° C to 4 ° C;
steam - not lower than 35 ° С;
cooled - not higher than 12 ° С.
Meat not later than 1.5 hours after the slaughter of cattle and carcasses, having a temperature of 36-38 ° C (beef), 35-36 ° C (pork) in the muscle mass of the hip (at a depth of at least 6 cm) is called paired. In this state, it is recommended to use it for making stuffed and boiled sausages, sausages, sausages and meat loaves.
The length of time from the moment of slaughter of animals to the process of deboning should not exceed 1.5 hours. Beef in the pair state is fed beef I, II categories of fatness without skin with normal (NOR) and high (DFD) pH (beef: normal (NOR) pH = 6.3-6.5, (DFD) pH = 6.5 and above.
The meat, after being subjected to cutting the carcasses to a temperature of not more than 12 ° C and having a crust of drying on the surface, is called chilled.
The cooled one is called beef, which was subjected to cooling after cooling the carcasses to a temperature of 0 to 4 ° C and having elastic muscles and a non-moistened surface covered with a crust of drying.
Frozen meat has a temperature at a depth of 1 cm from -3 to -5 ° C, and in the thickness of the thigh from 0 to 2 ° C. During storage, the temperature throughout the entire carcase should be -2 to -3 ° C.
Frozen beef meat has a temperature in the thickness of the muscles no higher than -8 ° C.
Frozen meat is considered to be the temperature in the thickness of the muscles of the thigh and the scapula in bones in artificially created conditions will reach a temperature of 1 ° C.
Characteristics of meat - beef (lower limits)
GOST 779-55 "Meat-beef in half-carcasses and quarters"
Beef of the first category in bulk from adult cattle:
the muscles are developed satisfactorily, the spinous processes of the vertebrae, the ischial tubercles and the pupae are not prominent;
subcutaneous fat covers the carcass from the 8th rib to the sciatic bugram, significant lumens are allowed;
neck, scapula, anterior ribs, thighs, pelvic cavity and groin area have fat deposits in the form of small areas;
From young animals:
the muscles are developed satisfactorily, the spinous processes of the dorsal and lumbar vertebrae protrude slightly, the scapula without depressions, the hips are not tightened, the subcutaneous fat deposits are clearly visible at the base of the tail and on the upper part of the inner side of the thigh.
On the inside, visible distinct layers of the fat on the cut of the thorax (chelic) and interlayer on the cut between the spinous processes of the first 4-5 dorsal vertebrae:
from young animals: muscles well developed, scapula without depressions, hips not tightened, spinous processes of vertebrae, sciatic tubercles and maklakislegku protrude. Fat deposits are at the base of the tail and on the upper inner side of the hips.
Beef of the second category in bulk (from adult cattle):
muscles are less well developed (thighs have cavities);
the spinous processes of the vertebrae, the ischial tubercles and the pups are distinct;
subcutaneous fat is present in the form of small areas in the region of sciatic tubercles, the waist and the last ribs;
from young animals:
muscles are less well developed (hips have depressions), spinous processes of the vertebrae, ischiatic tubercles and macaques appear clearly, fat deposits can be absent
Meat, which has indicators of fatness below these requirements, is referred to as lean. Meat of bulls (adult non-castrated males of cattle) is taken into account according to the fatness category.
Meat of beef comes in the form of longitudinal half-carcasses or quarters. Separation of carcases into quarters produces between 11 and 12 ribs.
Meat from young animals comes in the form of longitudinal carcases or quarters with a mass of half carcasses of at least 100 kg.
On half-carcasses or quarters, entering the industrial processing or storage, there are no residues of internal organs, blood clots, fringes, contaminants.
On frozen and frosted carcases and quarters, in addition, the presence of ice and snow is not allowed.
Half-carcasses and quarters, intended for sale, should not have damage to the surface, bruises, and bruises; the presence of sweeps and disruptions of subcutaneous fat on an area not exceeding 15% of the surface is allowed.
The category of fatness of meat with sweeps, and breakdowns of subcutaneous fat, exceeding 15% of the entire surface, is established in accordance with the fatness of the slaughtered animal.
For industrial processing for food purposes, the following is used:
meat of bulls;
Meat with swabs and breakdowns of subcutaneous fat exceeding 15% of the entire half-carcass or quarters surface, as well as inappropriate spinal separation (leaving whole vertebral bodies);
meat frozen more than once; meat fresh, but changed color in the neck (darkened); meat, frozen.
Beef in the storage grouped by categories of fatness, purpose (implementation or industrial processing) and the thermal state (chilled, frozen, frozen, thawed). During storage, the temperature and the relative humidity of the air are recorded. The quality of stored meat in the chambers of meat is monitored by the veterinary service. Beef, which, according to the conclusion of the veterinary service is not subject to further storage, immediately sold or transferred to industrial processing.
Storage of chilled and frozen beef
Chilled meat with a temperature in the thigh thickness of 0 ... 4 С is stored in a suspended state in cold rooms. Half-carcasses and meat carcasses are placed on hanging storage chambers with gaps of 20-30 mm. Beef in quarters and cuts and pork in half-carcasses can be stored in suspended condition in universal containers, which are set in 2-3 tiers in height depending on the height of the chamber.
Frozen meat is intended for industrial processing. Store beef in cooled chambers in a hung state (on hanging paths or universal containers) or pile-cages: beef carcasses - in 5-6 rows, pork half carcasses and mutton carcasses - in 7-8 rows with a total height of up to 1.7 m without application rack pads. Stacked cells are laid on flat wooden pallets lined with clean paper.
Duration of storage of frozen meat should not exceed 20 days, including: storage after freezing at the meat-packing plant - up to 3 days, transportation in a car or a car with engine cooling - no more than 7 days in summer and 10 days in winter.
Chilled and frozen beef is stored at an air speed of no more than 0.2 m / s.
Storage of frozen beef wholesale
Meat, frozen to a temperature in the thigh thickness -8 ° C, is stored in the chambers of the refrigerator packed in tight piles. Beef in quarters and cuts and pork in half-carcasses can also be stored in universal containers, which are installed in 2-3 tiers along the height of the chamber.
Frozen beef is stored in chambers at a temperature of no higher than -8 ° C, relative humidity of air - 95-98% and natural air circulation (0.1-0.3 m / s). In some cases, refrigerators that do not have the technical means to create a temperature of -18 ° C in the storage compartment may be stored at a temperature not higher than -12 ° C.
The maximum shelf life of unpackaged frozen meat of various species, depending on the air temperature in the chamber, is given in Table 1-2.
You can not stack meat of different types and categories of fatness in one stack or container. When storing meat in stacks, the bottom row is laid on slats or grids.